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Glossary

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  • Abboccato

    An Italian term that refers to slightly-sweet or semi-dry wines with medium body.

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  • Abruzzo

    A region in Italy’s east coast. Abruzzo is situated right between the Appenine Mountain Range and the Adriatic Sea. Vineyards are mostly on the slopes of the rugged, mountainous terrain, the region has a unique microclimate created by the high altitude and coastal location. Montepulciano is an Abruzzo native, but other varietals also grow here.

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  • Acidity

    This refers to the perceived sharpness of wine, and also a determinant of balance.

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  • Aglianico

    A black grape originally from Greece and now grown in the southern regions of Italy, Aglianico produces full-bodied wines with high acidity, and firm tannins, with hints of musky berry flavours.

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  • Alicante

    Also called Alicante Bouschet, this red grape varietal has been widely cultivated since 1866, and is primarily used for blending with light red wine because of its deep colour.

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  • Amabile

    An Italian term for semi-sweet wines.

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  • Annata

    A specific harvest or vintage.

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  • Azienda Agricola

    A farm or estate that produces its own grapes for the production of its wines.

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  • Barbera d’Alba

    A key DOC of Piedmont in northwestern Italy, Barbera d’Alba is known for its deep colour, high acidity levels, and low tannins.

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  • Barolo

    Description

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  • Brut

    A French term used to describe the driest champagne varieties.

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  • Cabernet Franc

    This black grape varietal is grown in a lot of wine regions worldwide. Lighter than its more recognised counterpart, Cabernet Sauvignon, this varietal is common in blended red wines, as it adds tobacco and dark spice flavour notes.

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  • Cabernet Sauvignon

    One of the most widely-known red wine grape varietals in the world, Cabernet Sauvignon produces wines that have a noticeable acidity, full or heavy body, and high tannins, with aromas of dark spices, blackcurrant, and cedar wood.

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  • Canaiolo

    A red Italian wine grape grown mostly in Tuscany, this varietal makes for soft wines with gentle tannins. It is used mostly to make Chianti, but is also a component of Vino Nobile di Montepulciano.

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  • Cantina

    The Italian term for the cellar or a winery.

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  • Cascina

    The Italian term for the farmhouse of a winery.

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  • Castello

    The Italian word for castle, similar to the French chateau.

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  • Chianti

    Basically any wine produced in the Chianti region of Tuscany, Italy, Chianti wines are blends of Sangiovese, Canaiolo, and other approved red grape varietals.

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  • Classico

    Denotes wines from a zone within a region (i.e., Chianti Classico) considered the original area of production.

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  • Colorino

    Mostly grown in Tuscany, this obscure black-skinned Italian wine grape varietal is known for its deep dark colouring, and is often used as a colouring agent for red wine blends.

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  • Corked

    A term that refers to wines with musty flavours and aromas, which is a result of trichloroanisol (TCA), a substance that can taint corks.

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  • Cortese

    Primarily grown in Piedmont, Cortese is a white Italian wine grape variety that has high acidity. It has aromas of lime, almonds, and light herbs, and flavour notes of peaches, apples, and honeydew.

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  • Corvina

    A red wine grape from the northeastern corner of Italy, Corvina is best known as a key component of Valpolicella wines. It is often bright red in color, low in tannins, and has a sour cherry flavour.

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  • Decant

    Intended to aerate young wines or to remove sediments that may be present in older ones, to decant or “decanting” is the process of transferring the wine from its original bottle to another vessel.

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  • DOC

    An abbreviation for Denominazione di Origine Controllata. Is one step below DOCG. Rules govern production and style but aren't as strin­gent as those for DOCGs. There are 334 DOCs in Italy, with the most recent additions approved in mid-2017.

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  • DOCG

    An abbreviation for Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garan­tita. It's the top classification for Italian wines. Strict rules govern all aspects of production. They include where the grapes can be grown, what varieties are allowed and how wines can be aged. There are 74 DOCGs in Italy, with the latest addition in 2011.

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  • Dolcetto

    A black grape variety widely grown in the Piedmont wine region of Italy, Dolcetto produces wine that is soft-styled and fruity with low levels of acidity, but is also high in tannins. It has earthy, sometimes nutty undertones and a gently spicy aroma.

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  • Dry

    A term that refers to wines with no more than 0.2% fermented sugar.

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  • Fattoria

    The Italian term for a wine farm.

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  • Fortified Wine

    A term used to refer to wine made more viscous by adding spirits, sometimes called “dessert wine.” The five common fortified wine styles are Marsala, Madeira, Port Wine, Sherry, and Vermouth.

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  • Friulano

    Also known as Sauvignon Vert or Sauvignonasse, Friulano is a white wine grape varietal from Italian winemaking region Friuli that is also widely planted in Chile. It produces varietal wines that are fresh and fruity, with citrus and almond notes.

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  • Frizzante

    An Italian term that refers to lightly sparkling wines, pronounced frizz-zan-tay.

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  • Glera

    The main grape varietal used in making the famous light-bodied and refreshing Prosecco wines, Glera is a neutral grape of Slovenian origin that is now grown mainly in the Veneto region.

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  • Grillo

    A An Italian white wine grape varietal that can grow in warmer climates like in Sicily, Grillo makes fresh, light wines with nutty flavour notes and fruity aromas of lemon and apple. It is widely used in a number of DOC wines.

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  • IGT

    An abbreviation for lndicazione Geografica Tipica. Introduced in 1992, this classification allows winemakers to use grapes and craft styles not allowed under DOC and DOCG regulations. There are currently 118 IGTs in Italy.

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  • Lambrusco di Sorbara

    A DOC red wine from the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy, Lambrusco di Sorbara is the highest-quality Lambrusco wine. Lambrusco is often used to make sparkling red wines. It is characterised by its ruby color and its high acidity, which makes it a great pairing for fatty or grilled foods.

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  • Lazio

    Located in central Italy, right where the ancient capital city of Rome is. Lazio’s specific climate is created by the dry warmth of the coast tempered by the cool sea wind. Its land is fertile and porous; while its potassium-rich volcanic soil best suits white grapes, the region has also has a terrific line of reds. Trebbiano and Malvasa di Candia are synonymous to Lazio.

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  • Maceration

    A winemaking process where the grape juice and the skins are fermented together, which allows for the imparting of colours, tannins, and aromas.

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  • Malvasia

    A family of wine grape varietals grown in Italy and a number of other Mediterranean regions, Malvasia is used to produce white table wines and dessert wines. .

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  • Malvasia bianca di Piemonte

    Another varietal of the Malvasia family, Malvasia bianca di Piemonte is often used to produce specialty wines that have a dry and sweet character, with very mild spiciness, ripe pear flavours, as well as honey notes.

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  • Malvasia Nera

    Grown throughout Italy and the Mediterranean, Malvasia Nera is an aromatic, dark-skinned varietal under the Malvasia family used for light to medium-bodied wines, as well as for dry, sparkling, and sweet wines.

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  • Merlot

    A soft, fleshy, dark blue-coloured wine grape varietal, Merlot is widely used both as a varietal wine and blending wine. It has moderate alcohol levels, with flavour notes ranging from fruity to leafy.

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  • Montepulciano

    A red Italian grape widely planted in central and southern Italy, Montepulciano produces moderately-acidic, low-tannin, deeply-coloured wines.

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  • Montepulciano d’Abruzzo

    An Italian red wine made from the Montepulciano wine grape in the Abruzzo region of east-central Italy, with a deep red colour, pepper and spice notes, and low acidity.

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  • Moscato

    One fo the oldest wine grapes in the world, Moscato is an Italian wine varietal famous for its light body, sweet flavours, and perfumed aromas.

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  • Must

    A winemaking term for crushed grapes that are about to, or are going through, the process of fermentation.

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  • Nebbiolo

    An Italian red wine grape varietal native to Piedmont, Nebbiolo produces light-coloured wines that are high in tannins, most of which are built for ageing. These wines have high acidity as well as a distinctive “tar and roses” scent.

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  • Negroamaro

    Negroamaro is a red wine grape varietal from southern Italy, specifically in Puglia. Wines produced from it possess medium-full tannins, deep color, mild aromas with hints of spices like cinnamon, allspice, and clove, and berry fruit flavours.

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  • Nerello Mascalese

    Grown commonly in the volcanic soils of Sicily, this dark-skinned grape varietal that produces fresh, taut red wines with earthy notes and fruity and herbaceous flavours.

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  • Nero d’Avola

    Dubbed “Sicily’s most important red wine grape,” Nero d’Avola produces ruby red dry wines with high tannins, medium acidity, and full body. It has strong fruity scents and rounded flavour.

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  • Oxidized

    A term that refers to wines that have been exposed to too much air and are thus no longer fresh.

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  • Pinot Noir

    A red wine grape varietal grown in wine regions with cooler climates, Pinot Noir has red fruit aromas of raspberries, strawberries, and cherries.

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  • Piedmont

    Found at Italy’s northwest region, sitting at the foot of the Western Alps. One of the world’s finest wine regions, Piedmont’s reputation is rooted in the many small-scale family-owned wineries it is home to — with the focus on quality as a tradition passed on from generation to generation. Its proximity to France also contributes to the region being ahead of other Italian wine regions in the learning and application of new winemaking technologies.

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  • Podere

    An Italian term that refers to a rural wine farm.

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  • Poggio

    An Italian term for an elevated place like a hill or a mountain slope.

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  • Primitivo

    A black-skinned wine grape grown widely in the US, Primitivo is used both for robust red wines and for semi-sweet rosés. It has a characteristic bitterness to it, as it has high levels of alcohol and tannins.

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  • Produttore

    Producer

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  • Puglia

    A region in southern Italy surrounded by the Adriatic Sea, the Ioanian Sea, and the Gulf of Taranto. The flatland’s location assembles a formidable combination of natural tools for vine growth — warm climate moderated by sea breezes, persistent sunshine, and fertile soil. This region is a great source of great-value reds such as Primitivo and Negroamaro.

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  • Raboso

    A red wine grape varietal grown in the Veneto region, Raboso produces wines of deep color, medium body, high acidity, and high tannin levels.

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  • Rondinella

    An Italian wine grape varietal grown mainly in Veneto, and used primarily for blending with wines from the Valpolicella wine region, as it adds herbal flavours.

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  • Riserva

    Denotes a wine aged for significantly longer than usual, though rules vary among the denominations.

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  • Sagrantino

    Indigenous to Umbria and now grown in Perugia, Sagrantino is an Italian wine grape variety with the highest tannic levels of all wine grapes, creating an inky purple wine with a dark center. Both sweet and savoury, the wine also has a fruity profile with hints of spiciness and earthiness.

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  • Sangiovese

    A red wine grape variety mostly grown in Tuscany, Campania, and Sicily, Sangiovese’s flavour profiles vary as the grape ages: spicy and fruity when young, and oaky when aged in barrels. It is characterised by high acid and firm tannins.

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  • Sauvignon Blanc

    Originating from Bordeaux, France, this green-skinned grape variety is now planted in many wine regions all over the globe. It produces white wines that have crisp, dry, and refreshing qualities, with aromas that range from green apples, asparagus, blackcurrant leaf, and gooseberries.

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  • Secco

    The Italian word for dry.

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  • Sicily

    Italy’s southernmost region and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. Sicily’s warm, dry climate, constant sunshine, moderate rainfall, coastal breezes, and mineral-rich dark soil allows for almost any kind of grape to grow, making it the most biodiverse wine region in Italy. The region is best-known for Marsala and Terre Siciliane IGT wines.

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  • Sulfites

    A term that refers to sulfur dioxide (SO2), a preservative used not only in winemaking but also in food industries. The compound prevents oxidization to maintain the wine’s freshness.

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  • Superiore

    Denotes a higher-quality designation, tacked on generally to a regional name (i.e., Soave Superiore).

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  • Syrah / Shiraz

    A dark-skinned grape varietal grown all over the world, Syrah or Shiraz is mainly used to produce full-bodied red wines with powerful fruit flavours like blueberries, black cherries, and blackcurrants, and is accented by chocolate, pepper, and spice notes.

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  • Tannins

    Found primarily in the skins and pits of grapes, tannins are phenolic compounds that provide structure to the wine.

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  • Tenuta

    Estate

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  • Terroir

    A French term used to refer to the combination of factors that influence the ultimate character of wine grapes, from the soil to the climate to the altitude.

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  • Tuscany

    Situated in central Italy, with the Tyrrhenian Sea as its western boundary. Tuscany’s climate is the biggest contributor to its success as a wine producer: the warmth of the coast and the coolness of the higher-level inlands creates a temperature contrast that maintains the balance in the grapes’ aromatics, sugars, and acidity. Although Sangiovese is the region’s signature, Tuscany offers an array of varietals.

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  • Uvaggio

    An Italian term that refers to a wine or grape blend.

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  • Vecchio

    An Italian term for “old.”

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  • Vendemmia

    A specific harvest or vintage.

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  • Veneto

    A substantial wine region in the northeastern corner of Italy. The varying topography of its sub-regions influence the microclimates; higher areas have cooler, alpine-influenced temperatures, which gradually becomes warmer with descent. Smaller in land area than other Italian wine regions, Veneto produces more wine compared to any of them. Prosecco, Its Valpolicella, Amarone, and Soave earned the region international recognition.

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  • Vigneto

    The Italian word for vineyard.

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  • Viniculture

    The cultivation of grapevines for winemaking.

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  • Vino

    A Spanish and Italian word for wine.

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  • Yeast

    Organisms that trigger the fermentation process by producing enzymes.

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    An Italian term for “old.”

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    A specific harvest or vintage.

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    The Italian word for vineyard.

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    The cultivation of grapevines for winemaking.

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